Andrew Balmford is Professor of Conservation Science in the Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, where his main research interests are the costs and benefits of effective conservation, and exploring how conservation might best be reconciled with land-demanding activities such as farming. To have most impact he focuses his research in developing countries and collaborates closely with conservation practitioners and with colleagues in other disciplines. He helped establish the Cambridge Conservation Forum, the Cambridge Conservation Initiative and the annual Student Conference on Conservation Science. He was elected as a Fellow of the Royal Society in 2011, and since 2013 has served as a Trustee of the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds, Europe’s largest conservation charity. His 2012 book Wild Hope highlights success stories in conservation and argues that cautious optimism is essential in tackling environmental challenges.